In Getting value on Y axis by putting X axis value on the Mr Excel forum, someone wanted to know how to find in-between values of a function, given some known data points. The approach, of course, is to interpolate values given the known points on either side of the value you need.
Interpolation requires some simple algebra. The diagram below shows two points (blue diamonds connected by a blue line) with coordinates (X1, Y1) and (X2, Y2). We need to find the value of Y corresponding to a given X, represented by the red square at (X, Y).
The smaller triangle with hypotenuse (X1, Y1)-(X, Y) is “similar” to the larger triangle with hypotenuse (X1, Y1)-(X2, Y2), so the sides of the triangles are proportionally sized, leading to the first equation below the sketch. We rearrange this to solve for Y, in the second equation.
We’ll set up our interpolation in the example below. Our data is in A5:B18, and the known values are plotted as blue diamonds connected by blue lines in the chart.
The analysis has two parts: first we need to determine which pair of points to interpolate between, second we need to do the interpolation. We will judge the validity of our interpolation by plotting the calculated point on the same chart.
Solving for Y
I’ve put the calculations above the data table. The yellow shaded cell, A2, holds the known X value, and a formula in cell B2 holds the calculated Y value. Cell A3 indicates which pair of points to interpolate between. The formulas are:
B2: =INDEX(B6:B18,A3) + (A2-INDEX(A6:A18,A3)) * (INDEX(B6:B18,A3+1)-INDEX(B6:B18,A3)) / (INDEX(A6:A18,A3+1)-INDEX(A6:A18,A3))
We want the Gauge value (Y) when the Flow value (X) equals 3, so this is entered into the yellow shaded cell A2. The formula in A3 tells us that our computed point is between the 7th and 8th data point, and the formula in B2 calculate Y=0.444, and the calculated point (A2, B2) is the red square that lies along the plotted data points. Looks good.
Te determine the Gauge value for a Flow value of 12, we enter this into A2. The red square moves along the blue line past the 11th point, where Gauge=0.548.
Solving for X
With a minor rearrangement, we can instead solve for Flow, given a value for Gauge. The known Gauge value is entered into B2, shaded yellow. B3 indicates the pair of points to interpolate between, and A2 provides the value for Flow. The formulas are:
A2: =INDEX(A6:A18,B3) + (B2-INDEX(B6:B18,B3)) * (INDEX(A6:A18,B3+1)-INDEX(A6:A18,B3)) / (INDEX(B6:B18,B3+1)-INDEX(B6:B18,B3))
For a Gauge (Y) of 0.53, we compute a Flow (X) of 9.790. The red square shows where the calculate point lies along our plotted data.
Changing the Gauge value to 0.35 moves the red square way to the left, to a Flow value of 0.400.